Bran Selic on UML 2

19 November, 2008 at 10:53 3 comments

UML logoThe Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a graphical language for visualizing, specifying and constructing the artifacts of a software-intensive system. The Unified Modeling Language offers a standard way to write a system’s blueprints, including conceptual things such as business processes and system functions as well as concrete things such as programming language statements, database schemas, and reusable software components. UML combines the best practice from data modeling concepts such as entity relationship diagrams, business modeling (work flow), object modeling and component modeling. It can be used with all processes, throughout the software development life cycle, and across different implementation technologies.


UML is officially defined by the Object Management Group (OMG) as the UML metamodel, a Meta-Object Facility metamodel (MOF). Like other MOF-based specifications, UML has allowed software developers to concentrate more on design and architecture.[1]

UML models may be automatically transformed to other representations (e.g. Java) by means of QVT-like transformation languages, supported by the OMG.

Extensible Mechanisms

UML is extensible, offering the following mechanisms for customization: profiles and stereotype. The semantics of extension by profiles have been improved with the UML 1.0 major revision.

UML has matured significantly since UML 1.1. Several minor revisions (UML 1.3, 1.4, and 1.5) fixed shortcomings and bugs with the first version of UML, followed by the UML 2.0 major revision that was adopted by the OMG in 2003. There are four parts to the UML 2.x specification: the Superstructure that defines the notation and semantics for diagrams and their model elements; the Infrastructure that defines the core metamodel on which the Superstructure is based; the Object Constraint Language (OCL) for defining rules for model elements; and the UML Diagram Interchange that defines how UML 2 diagram layouts are exchanged. The current versions of these standards follow: UML Superstructure version 2.1.2, UML Infrastructure version 2.1.2, OCL version 2.0, and UML Diagram Interchange version 1.0[4].

Although many UML tools support some of the new features of UML 2.x, the OMG provides no test suite to objectively test compliance with its specifications.

Diagrams overview

UML 2.0 has 13 types of diagrams divided into three categories: Six diagram types represent static application structure, three represent general types of behavior, and four represent different aspects of interactions. These diagrams can be categorized hierarchically as shown in the following Class diagram:

Hierarchy of UML 2.0 Diagrams, shown as a class diagram

UML does not restrict UML element types to a certain diagram type. In general, every UML element may appear on almost all types of diagrams. This flexibility has been partially restricted in UML 2.0.

In keeping with the tradition of engineering drawings, a comment or note explaining usage, constraint, or intent is always allowed in a UML diagram.

The highlights of UML 2.0 functionality

The new developments in UML 2.0 can be grouped into the following five major categories, listed in order of significance:

  • A significantly increased degree of precision in the definition of the language: This is a result of the need to support the higher levels of automation required for MDD. Automation implies the elimination of ambiguity and imprecision from models (and, hence, from the modeling language) so that computer programs can transform and manipulate models.
  • An improved language organization: This is characterized by a modularity that not only makes the language more approachable to new users, but also facilitates inter-working between tools.
  • Significant improvements in the ability to model large-scale software systems: Some modern software applications represent integrations of existing stand-alone applications into more complex systems of systems. This is a trend which will likely continue resulting in ever more complex systems. To support such trends, flexible new hierarchical capabilities were added to the language to support software modeling at arbitrary levels of complexity.
  • Improved support for domain-specific specialization: Practical experience with UML demonstrated the value of its so-called “extension” mechanisms. These were consolidated and refined to allow simpler and more precise refinements of the base language.
  • Overall consolidation, rationalization, and clarifications of various modeling concepts: This resulted in a simplified and more consistent language. It involved consolidation and — in a few cases — removing redundant concepts, refining numerous definitions, and adding textual clarifications and examples. interview Bran Selic on UML

In this episode we’re talking to Bran Selic of Malina Software about modelling in general and UML2 in particular. Bran covers the basics of modelling, the history of UML, and what’s new in UML2.

Host(s): Laurence

Guest(s): Bran Selic


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Entry filed under: Modelling,, SERadio interview, UML. Tags: , , , , .

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